The Backyard Brains Claw Bundle is the latest in our line of Muscle SpikerShield products! This kit comes with everything you need to begin experimenting with your first brain-machine interface. By using the electrical activity hidden within your muscles, you will learn how to control your first neuroprosthetic, the Claw!
We’ve also provided a number of established documentations and experiments in conjunction with this new release! The Claw experiment takes what you learned from our beginner neuroprosthetics experiment, the Muscle SpikerShield experiments and the Muscle Spikershield Robotic Gripper experiment and bundles it all together into a fantastic introduction to “neuroprosthetics,” a rich field of study which seeks to bring control back into the lives of people who have suffered loss of limb or severe nerve damage.
With this experiment you will learn about:
Biofeedback: Using technology to monitor and react to control previously hidden physiological functions, such as heartbeat, muscle tension, and even brain activity!
Threshold potential: How much energy does it take to flip the switch and turn on a muscle or a motor?
Muscle recruitment: The difference between a soft, gentle movement, and a strong, quick movement is how quickly and how many muscles are activated!
One famous demonstration of the potential of neuroprosthetics came from the University of Pittsburgh Motorlab. These researchers implanted electrodes into a monkey’s motor cortex, thus allowing the monkey to take control of a robotic arm. The monkey learned to use this robotic arm to feed itself.
The Claw Bundle experiment does not, obviously, involve brain surgery, however; the principles behind the technology are the same! You can however make contributions to the future of neuroprosthetics through your own DIY experiments! What else can you control? The possibilities are endless!
The Claw Bundle is available for $189.99 and comes with everything you need to perform the experiment right out of the box!
Welcome to the cockroach world!
My work for these five weeks was to develop a novel low-cost system to study the circadian rhythm of cockroaches. I’m working with my beautiful friends discoid cockroaches (B. discoidalis).
Circadian rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in an organism’s environment. In the case of these nocturnal creatures the changes in locomotor activity (what I’m measuring) goes from sleeping during daylight, and activity during night. The sleep-wake cycle is generated by an internal clock that is synchronized to the light-dark cycle of the environment. Because they are nocturnal, light may directly inhibit locomotor activity.
We asked what would happen to the activity patterns of discoid roaches if they kept a normal 12 hour light/dark cycle for ten days and then switched to 24 hours of darkness for another ten days, and then with constant light. In the absence of external cues to tell the cockroach what time of day it is, our hypothesis is that we will see free-running, and a new activity cycle will develop based solely on the internal biological clock. To track this, we measure the activity of the cockroach with running-wheels throughout the day in free-running conditions (no external cues), along with sensors to track light and temperature. From this we hope to develop the cockroach wheel as a model for educating students about circadian rhythms, animal behavior, and neuroscience, and to provide a simple, low-cost, but flexible experimental system for research into the behavioral effects of various commonly consumed substances such as caffeine.
The rhythm in cockroaches is controlled by the sub-oesophageal ganglion. The photoreceptors on eyes detects light or darkness, transduce the signal, this signal goes through the optical nerve to the optic lobe (where is located the clock), this one receives the message and output the activity. I will control the external cue (light) that her brain used to output the activity that corresponds to the time.
Want to study with cockroaches?
When I came here 5 weeks ago I began with a microcontroller (BeagleBone Black), the green board with sensors, a wheel with some black,
and white stripes, a devilish code to run all of this, and knowing nothing about anything of the electrical and computer science work that I was needed to do.
As soon as possible I put everything to work. My older set-up looks like the photo at the right-it was in a box that I carried to my house several times in order to record data. I need them this way because the BeagleBone wasn’t, at the time programmed to access Internet through an ethernet cable, so I needed it, at all times, connected to my computer and my laptop turned on. The most difficult objective to complete was to have the code with all the commands in the correct way so it can collect good data. There seemed to always be a problem with missing, commented, uncommented, or extra lines that made this code a stressful thing to work with.
I now have five 3D printed running-wheels with plenty space for the cockroach and a good object sensor at the back, the light sensor to tell when the lights go on and off, and temperature sensors that showed the environment was constant. I attached these to the support of the wheel, all in a comfortable locker with soundproofing foam (to eliminate outside noise), and a device that control when the lights goes on and off. The board with these sensors is attached to the BeagleBone Black, and the BBB runs through Wi-Fi (no easy feat). Though not done yet, my code is getting better with the help of people like Stanislav our programmer, and Max and Nick-our resident super-engineers. Now the system is complete and beautiful:
Outlet Timer Wi-Fi adapter Research in Progress
Sensors at the back Object sensor with B/W Stripes Microcontroller with breadboard (red)
The Fantastic Five
Let there be (12 hour cycle) light! Cockroach Rave
Want to see cool cockroaches running on the wheel? Click here:
The fastest one? Click here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdbTq0RI9MI
Environment for cockroaches
I put my cockroaches in a controlled environment with no external cues interfering, such as noise or light during night, that could let them know what time of day it is. We don’t want them to potentially associate other external cues to time because their rhythm will be based on other cues, and not on light cues which we control and provide. In order to achieve this I put them in a locker with soundproofing foam, a stripe of LED lights (sun light), and the green board that contains the sensors attached to the 3D printed running-wheel for a sexy and clean set-up.
Understanding the collected data
Now that we have all the set-up, let’s move to the best part-Science! In my data I have a range of arbitrary values that will represent whether the sensor received lots of infrared light back or not. That usually goes from 2500 to 4000-A value of 2500 means that the sensor was in front of a white stripe, and if in front of black stripe the value can go up to 4000. Every time the cockroach moves, the stripes do too, and so I can see in my data the movements in a wave that goes from white (2500) to black (4000).
How object sensor works
Set-up to collect data
First ever collection of complete 23.3 hours of data!
Cockroaches are nocturnal animals, that’s why light may directly inhibit locomotor activity in a them. I’m looking for a pattern of activity-once I have that, I will begin with the dark/dark cycle, and compare this data to the normal cycle they exhibit.
You’re seeing two circadian rhythms of two different cockroaches in the same environment. As you see, It showed a rhythmicity, although does not follow the light cycle. This may have been because the cockroaches were living in a dark room. A couple of weeks are needed for them to adjust to the light cycle.This is the most astounding data I ever saw. This is the first time data is collected and plotted in an actogram. Hope you enjoyed like I do.
Why study circadian rhythms
My main goal for this project is to prove the system is viable to study the circadian rhythms of cockroaches, and I did it. Research in this area can lead to knowledge about how the daily cycle in humans works, and what are the consequences of disruptions to it. It is known that disruptions to the circadian rhythms are highly related to cancer, obesity, mood disorders, stress, and other health issues.
You made it! Thanks for taking the time to read how it is going with my research.
Behind this project is
The Alpha Dog, also called Karina M. Matos Fernández. I study Psychology and Mental Health in the University of Puerto Rico in Ponce, and I’m a proudly intern in Backyard Brains. For this project I’m using papers such as Control of the circadian rhythm of activity in the cockroach by John Brady, along with Recording and Analysis of Circadian Rhythms in Running-wheel Activity in Rodents by Verwey, Robinson, and Amir.
I’ve never known anything about what a microcontroller is or could do, and this month I programed six of the most finicky kind-BeagleBones. That’s why I’m called The Alpha Dog. Also it never crossed my mind that I would be so close to a cockroach… And yet, now I love them. How could one not love these amazing creatures?
If you are wondering how I beat my fear of cockroaches, let me tell you that I’m still working on that. In case no one was available to grab them, I used a special mechanism I invented consisting of a cup and a lid: these two helped me to grab them. However, I still feel a special love for them.
I’ll be glad to know who you are, and what are your questions and comments. I hope that now you’re interested in making research with cool model systems such as this one. Whoever is out there, I want to know more about you. Keep in touch to know more about the progress of the project.
To be continued…
Katelyn Rowley put some scientific
photos in my post. Thanks!
Welcome! This is Kylie Smith, a Michigan State University undergraduate writing to you from a basement in Ann Arbor. I am studying behavioral neuroscience and cognition at MSU and have been fortunate enough to have landed an internship with the one and only Backyard Brains for the summer. I am working on The Consciousness Detector – an effort to bring neuroscience equipment to the DIY realm in a way that allows us to learn about EEGs, attention, and consciousness. It is my mission to create an oddball task that elicits the P300 signal in such a way that can be detected on BYB’s EEG machine. Let me break it down:
An oddball task is an attentional exercise in which a participant sees or listens to a series of repeating stimuli. These stimuli are infrequently interrupted by a novel stimulus called the oddball stimulus. The participant is asked to count or press a button for each oddball stimulus that is seen. Named so for its positive change in voltage occurring around 300 ms after the appearance of the oddball, the P300 can be seen when the participant is attending to the stimuli and the oddball they had been waiting for arrives. This signal can be detected by an electroencephalogram, or EEG. EEGs use a series of small, flat discs, called electrodes, in contact with the scalp to detect changes in voltage through the skull. The EEG detects the changes in the electrical activity of neurons and transmits the detected signals to a polygraph to be analyzed. Outside of my project, EEGs can be used to help diagnose certain neurological disorders and help pinpoint locations of activity during seizures.
So why is this project worthwhile? Consistent with BYB’s mission statement, we want to bring neuroscience to everyone. Your average neuroscientist spends years learning the mechanisms behind brain funtion in order to use this knowledge practically. Then the equipment must be conquered – it is often complicated and lots of time is dedicated to mastery. By hacking their own EEG and producing it from basic electronic components, BYB is able to bring this machinery to you – and that is an incredible thing. Learning the principles behind EEG recording and how to use such a machine is something that few have the opportunity to do – and now you can do it in your living room! The idea behind The Consciousness Detector is used in the medical field. Patients with severe brain damage can be given an auditory oddball task to objectively predict recovery of consciousness through the P300 that is or is not present (If interested, please see: Cavinato et al. (2010) Event-related brain potential modulation in patients with severe brain damage). We are bringing medical techniques used to predict prognosis to you. Yay!
The current BYB EEG headband is being employed to record from the parietal lobe, as this is where the P300 is detected the strongest. A better apparatus for holding electrodes in place will most likely be introduced down the line. I have high hopes to pop some rivets into a home-made brain hat and begin an EEG cap trend. For now, this is what I’m working with:
Backyard Brain’s EEG system uses two active electrodes, the electrodes recording activity, and a ground to eliminate noise common to the head. I have attempted to begin as simply as possible to determine what kind of oddball task is required to elicit the P300. The arduino shield produced by BYB has a series of LEDs, shown in the picture to the right, that I have used in my first version of the task. We coded the LEDs to flash in a random sequence with the oddball stimulus flashing 10% of the time, as a smaller probability of seeing the oddball predicts a larger amplitude and more easily detectable P300. The standard and oddball LEDs were assigned to corresponding digital outputs on the arduino and were wired into the analog input so that each flash could be detected on the Spike Recorder app. In the picture below, the green signals represent the standard LED flash and the red represents the oddball LED. Using this method, we can see what occurs 300 ms after the oddball LED is flashed. To ensure that attention is required to detect the oddball, we began by using one green LED as the standard stimulus and the other green LED as the oddball flashing 10% of the time. After getting no response in that department we tried other colored LEDs as the oddball, thinking that two green LEDs may be too similar since the oddball stimulus is intended to be more novel than the standard. No P300 was observed there, either.
We have written another oddball task using LEDs in which the LEDs randomly flash two at a time. The task of EEG-wearer is to count how often symmetric stimulation occurs across the LED midline. This task gives a more novel oddball and hopefully an easily detectable P300! More oddball options are in the works, including small images for a visual oddball and auditory tasks as well! Stay tuned 🙂